Optimal Co-Design of Wireless Resource Management and Multi-Loop Networked Control

PIs: Sandra Hirche (TU Muenchen), Wolfgang Kellerer (TU Muenchen)

Emerging cyber-physical systems (CPS) such as smart industrial production lines, smart energy grids, and autonomous vehicular systems are characterized by multiple feedback control loops that are closed over a shared communication channel. This poses new challenges for the communication and control system design to support such networked control systems (NCS) with stringent real-time requirements. Network design has to move from traditional throughput-oriented optimization of network resources to real-time orientation to support NCS. Control systems in turn need to become aware of the changing conditions and opportunities of the network infrastructure. A strictly separate design is known to lead to high conservatism and thus to a low quality of control and to low efficiency and high cost in the context of resource usage. So, future CPS design needs to address control and networking jointly to efficiently fulfill the tight control performance requirements. Today, there exists no systematic approach for the joint design of the control and communication protocol.

The objective of this project is to develop a framework for the co-design of communication and control, concretely for the optimal co-design of the wireless resource management in terms of medium access control and networked multi-loop control. Our key contributions are (1) a deep understanding of the relationship between the achievable control performance, communication network parameters and control system parameters based on analytic models, (2) novel optimal control and scheduling designs under resource constraints, (3) novel mechanisms for medium access in multi-hop wireless networks with real-time requirements, and (4) a (near-) optimal layering architecture and co-design for wireless communication and control over wireless multi-hop networks. We take the scenario of multiple independent control loops accessing one shared wireless communication channel as our starting point. In particular, we consider control systems with heterogeneous linear time invariant processes and a typical wireless network medium access control based on a slotted aloha principle. We investigate the wireless network resource management and control performance trade-off, propose new models for a joint consideration and explore their fundamental limits in terms of scale and performance. Based on the decomposition of the overall optimization problem, we will derive a novel approach for the control and scheduling design as well as new network resource management schemes to support a co-design. We will provide a first optimal system co-design through the solution of the decomposed optimization problem. A key focus is put on finding fundamental results. Preliminary findings of a joint work of the two proposers’ collaborating research groups suggest a high benefit from the joint modelling and co-design strategies.

Planned Contributions

  1. Fundamental joint modeling and analysis of control processes & medium access mechanisms
  2. Analysis and decomposition of the optimization problem
  3. Design of event-triggered control with awareness of communication medium
  4. Design of new control-aware resource allocation mechanisms
  5. Control and communication co-design based on joint optimization variable set


Involved PhD and PostDoc candidates

  • Touraj Soleymani, Ph.D. (TUM-ITR)
  • Samuele Zoppi, Ph.D. (TUM-LKN)
  • Mohammad H. Mamduhi, PostDoc (TUM-ITR)


  1. M. Vilgelm, O. Ayan, S. Zoppi, W. Kellerer: Control-aware Uplink Resource Allocation for Cyber-Physical Systems in Wireless Networks, in European Wireless, Dresden, Germany, May 2017.
  2. M. H. Mamduhi, M. Vilgelm, W. Kellerer, S. Hirche: Prioritized Contention Resolution for Random Access Networked Control Systems, in 56th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Melbourne, Australia, December 2017.
  3. T. Soleymani, S. Hirche, J. S. Baras: Event-Triggered Output-Feedback H-Infinity Control with Minimum Directed Information, in 56th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Melbourne, Australia, December 2017.
  4. T. Soleymani, S. Hirche, J. S. Baras: Optimal Stationary Self-Triggered Sampling for Estimation, in Proceedings of the 55th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Las Vegas, USA, 2016.
  5. M. Vilgelm, M. H. Mamduhi, W. Kellerer, S. Hirche: Adaptive Decentralized MAC for Event-triggered Networked Control Systems, in 19th International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC), Vienna, Austria, 2016.
  6. M. H. Mamduhi, M. Kneissl, S. Hirche: Decentralized Event-triggered Medium Access Control for Networked Control Systems, in 55th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Las Vegas, USA, 2016.
  7. T. Soleymani, S. Hirche, J. S. Baras: Optimal Information Control in Cyber-Physical Systems, in IFAC Workshop on Distributed Estimation and Control in Networked Systems, 2016.
  8. A. Molin, S. Hirche: Event-Triggered State Estimation: An Iterative Algorithm and Optimality Properties, in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 2017.
  9. S. Zoppi, M. Gürsu, M. Vilgelm, W. Kellerer: Reliable Hopping Sequence Design for Highly Interfered Wireless Sensor Networks, in IEEE International Symposium on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN), Osaka, Japan, 2017.
  10. M. H. Mamduhi, A. Molin, D. Toic, S. Hirche: Error-dependent data scheduling in resource-aware multi-loop networked control systems, in Automatica (81), 2017.
  11. M. Vilgelm, M. Gürsu, S. Zoppi, W. Kellerer: Time Slotted Channel Hopping for Smart Metering: Measurements and Analysis of Medium Access, in IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), Sydney, Australia, 2016.
  12. Zoppi, Samuele; Van Bemten, Amaury; Gürsu, Murat; Vilgelm, Mikhail; Guck, Jochen, Kellerer, Wolfgang: Achieving Hybrid Wired/Wireless Industrial Networks with WDetServ: Reliability-Based Scheduling for Delay Guarantees, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 2018.
  13. Vilgelm, Mikhail; Schiessl, Sebastian; Al-Zubaidy, Hussein; Kellerer, Wolfgang; Gross, James: On the Reliability of LTE Random Access: Performance Bounds for Machine-to-Machine Burst Resolution Time, IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2018.
  14. Soleymani, Touraj; Zoppi, Samuele; Vilgelm, Mikhail; Hirche, Sandra; Kellerer, Wolfgang; Baras, John: Covariance-Based Transmission Power Control for Estimation over Wireless Sensor Networks, European Control Conference (ECC), 2018.
  15. M.H. Mamduhi; S. Hirche: Try-Once-Discard Scheduling for Stochastic Networked Control Systems, International Journal of Control, 1-15, 2018.
  16. Soleymani, Touraj; Hirche, Sandra; Baras, John: LQG Control via Wireless Sensor Networks with Minimal Transmission Power, 14th Workshop on Discrete Event Systems (WODES), 2018.
  17. D. Maity; M.H. Mamduhi; S. Hirche; K.H. Johansson; J.S. Baras: Optimal LQG Control under Delay-dependent Costly Information, IEEE Control Systems Letters 3 (1), 2018, 102-107.
  18. M.H. Mamduhi; J.S. Baras; K.H. Johansson; S. Hirche: State-dependent Data Queuing in Shared-resource Networked Control Systems, 57th IEEE Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Miami, Florida, USA, 2018.
  19. M.H. Balaghi I.; D.J. Antunes; M.H. Mamduhi; S. Hirche: A Decentralized Consistent Policy for Event-triggered Control over a Shared Contention-based Network, 57th IEEE Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) Miami, Florida, USA, 2018.
  20. Markus Klügel, Mohammad H. Mamduhi, Sandra Hirche, Wolfgang Kellerer: AoI-Penalty Minimization for Networked Control Systems with Packet Loss, INFOCOM Workshops 2019: 189-196
  21. Onur Ayan, Mikhail Vilgelm, Markus Klügel, Sandra Hirche, Wolfgang Kellerer: Age-of-information vs. value-of-information scheduling for cellular networked control systems, ICCPS 2019: 109-117
  22. Ayan, Onur, et al: Probability analysis of age of information in multi-hop networks, IEEE Networking Letters 2.2 (2020): 76-80.
  23. Ayan, Onur, Mikhail Vilgelm, and Wolfgang Kellerer: Optimal scheduling for discounted age penalty minimization in multi-loop networked control, 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC). IEEE, 2020.
  24. Onur Ayan, H. Murat Gürsu, Sandra Hirche, Wolfgang Kellerer: AoI-based Finite Horizon Scheduling for Heterogeneous Networked Control Systems. GLOBECOM 2020: 1-7
  25. Zoppi S, Champati J P, Gross J, et al: Dynamic scheduling for delay-critical packets in a networked control system using wirelessHART, ICC 2020-2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). IEEE, 2020: 1-7.
  26. Zoppi, Samuele, Sharada Prasad Shantharam, and Wolfgang Kellerer: Delay-Reliability Model of Industrial WSN for Networked Control Systems, GLOBECOM 2020-2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. IEEE, 2020.
  27. Markus Kluegel, Mohammad H. Mamduhi, Onur Ayan, Mikhail Vilegelm, Karl H. Johansson, Sandra Hirche, Wolfgang Kellerer: Joint cross-layer optimization in real-time networked control systems, IEEE Transaction on Control Network System, 2020
  28. Ayan, Onur, H. Yağiz Özkan, and Wolfgang Kellerer: An experimental framework for age of information and networked control via software-defined radios, ICC 2021-IEEE International Conference on Communications. IEEE, 2021.
  29. Siyi Wang, Qingchen Liu, Precious Ugo Abara, John S. Baras, Sandra Hirche: Value of Information in Networked Control Systems Subject to Delay, CDC 2021: 1275-1280
  30. Ayan, Onur, Anthony Ephremides, and Wolfgang Kellerer: Age of information: An indirect way to improve control system performance, IEEE INFOCOM 2021-IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). IEEE, 2021.
  31. Zoppi S, Ayan O, Molinari F, et al.: NCSbench: Reproducible Benchmarking Platform for Networked Control Systems, 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC). IEEE, 2020: 1-9.
  32. Maximilian Kneißl, Anil Kunnappillil Madhusudhanan, Adam Molin, Hasan Esen, Sandra Hirche: A Multi-Vehicle Control Framework With Application to Automated Valet Parking, IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 22(9): 5697-5707 (2021)
  33. Mohammad H. Mamduhi, Dipankar Maity, Sandra Hirche, John S. Baras, Karl Henrik Johansson: Delay-Sensitive Joint Optimal Control and Resource Management in Multiloop Networked Control Systems, IEEE Trans. Control. Netw. Syst. 8(3): 1093-1106 (2021)
  34. Touraj Soleymani, John S. Baras, Sandra Hirche: Value of Information in Feedback Control: Quantification, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control. 67(7): 3730-3737 (2022)
  35. Zoppi S, Champati J P, Gross J, et al.: Scheduling of wireless edge networks for feedback-based interactive applications, IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2022, 70(5): 3295-3309.
  36. Zoppi, Samuele, Ivan Smolin, and Wolfgang Kellerer: Experimental Transmission Power Control Policy for Remote State Estimation in Industrial WSN, 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). IEEE, 2021.
  37. Ayan O, Kutsevol P, Özkan H Y, et al.: Semantics-and Task-Oriented Scheduling for Networked Control Systems in Practice, IEEE Access, 2022, 10: 115673-115690.
  38. Deshpande Y, Ayan O, Kellerer W.: Improving AoI via Learning-based Distributed MAC in Wireless Networks, IEEE INFOCOM 2022-IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), IEEE, 2022: 1-8.
  39. Touraj Soleymani, John S. Baras, Sandra Hirche, Karl Henrik Johansson: Feedback Control Over Noisy Channels: Characterization of a General Equilibrium, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control. 67(7): 3396-3409 (2022)
  40. Mohammadhadi Balaghiinaloo, Duarte J. Antunes, Mohammad H. Mamduhi, Sandra Hirche: Decentralized LQ-Consistent Event-Triggered Control Over a Shared Contention-Based Network, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control. 67(3): 1430-1437 (2022)
  41. Dipankar Maity, Mohammad H. Mamduhi, Sandra Hirche, Karl Henrik Johansson: Optimal LQG Control of Networked Systems Under Traffic-Correlated Delay and Dropout, IEEE Control. Syst. Lett. 6: 1280-1285 (2022)
  42. Touraj Soleymani, John S. Baras, Sandra Hirche, Karl Henrik Johansson: Value of Information in Feedback Control: Global Optimality, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control. 68(6): 3641-3647 (2023)
  43. Junjie Jiao, Dipankar Maity, John S. Baras, Sandra Hirche: Actuator Scheduling for Linear Systems: A Convex Relaxation Approach., IEEE Control. Syst. Lett. 7: 7-12 (2023)
  44. Siyi Wang, Sandra Hirche: Value of Information in Networked Control System subject to Delay and Packet Dropout, CDC (2023)
  45. Onur Ayan, Sandra Hirche, Anthony Ephremides, Wolfgang Kellerer: Optimal Finite Horizon Scheduling of Wireless Networked Control Systems, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (2023)